So it shows the Hub is connected to the Internet. It also shows that DNS on the hub is working, and that's what this client at least is using. So that's all good.
You initially said you'd "been having an issue with the above for almost a week now". Was there anything that happened around that time that might help explain the loss of connectivity? Did all the device you have stop working at the same time?
You also said "can't access any web pages on any device". If we take the Windows PC for example, what browser do you use and what is the error it gives. Have you tried different browsers on the PC?
I have to admit I'm struggling to think of something that would all the devices you have.
Interesting issue, that appears to have had all the bases covered already. Only thing I can think of at the moment that hasn't been tried is disabling IPv6 support on the PC NIC. Obviously IPv4 is working fine, (pings & DNS resolver), so, that leaves a hub glitch, possibly. IPv6 is used first then fall back to v4 if unsuccessful, so, fall back not working in the hub? Ok, disabling v6 on PC won't help mobile devices right off but may give some indication of the fault.
Worth a shot as running out of ideas.... unless we start trying to run packet captures That won't be easy as you can't get access to Internet to download Wireshark
As far as I'm aware Windows network priority is IPv6 Global Unicast Address (GUA), then IPv4 and then IPv6 Unique Local Address. The ipconfig from before only shows Link Local so IPv6 shouldn't be tried.... but as above it has to be worth a shot.
To eliminate the browser and HTTP altogether, if you're comfortable on the PC command line, you could try FTP.
I've just sent you a private message with details of my FTP server, and a username and password to use. Let us know how that goes.
EDIT: I won't be offended if you're not comfortable connecting to an unknown site based on a message from an equally unknown person.
Well, barrel scraping now. We know that cmd prompt, ping, tracert etc bypass router & ISP block lists, just like VPN & TOR. So I don't suppose you have a copy of TOR Browser available? It would at least narrow things a bit more.
smf22, if FTP successful want to try putting the TOR Browser on for him to try?